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Elder Law Estate Planning

Protecting Kids from Too Much, Too Fast, Too Soon

Protecting your children from frittering away an inheritance, is often done through a spendthrift trust but that trust can also be used to protect them from divorce and other problems that can come their way, according to Kiplinger in “How to Keep Your Heirs from Blowing Their Inheritance.”

We all want the best for our kids, and if we’ve been fortunate, we are happy to leave them with a nice inheritance that makes for a better life. However, regardless of how old they are, we know our children best and what they are capable of. Some adults are simply not prepared to handle a significant inheritance. They may have never learned how to manage money or may be involved with a significant other who you fear may not have their best interests in mind. If there’s a problem with drug or alcohol use, or if they are not ready for the responsibility that comes with a big inheritance, there are steps you can take to help them.

Protecting Kids from Too Much, Too Fast, Too Soon. Don’t feel bad if your children aren’t ready for an inheritance. How many stories do we read about lottery winners who go through all their winnings and end up filing for bankruptcy?

An inheritance of any size needs to be managed with care.

A spendthrift trust protects heirs, by providing a trustee with the authority to control how the beneficiary can use the funds. A trust becomes a spendthrift trust, when the estate planning attorney who creates it uses specific language indicating that the trust qualifies as such, and by including limitations to the beneficiary’s control of the funds.

Protecting Kids from Too Much, Too Fast, Too Soon. A spendthrift trust also protects assets from creditors, because the heir does not own the assets. The trust owns the assets. This also protects the assets from divorces, lawsuits and bankruptcies. It’s a good way to keep the money out of the hands of manipulative partners, family members and friends.

Once the money is paid from the trust, the protections are gone. However, while the money is in the trust, it enjoys protection.

The trustee in a spendthrift trust has a level of control that is granted by you, the grantor of the trust. You can stipulate that the trustee is to make a set payment to the beneficiary every month, or that the trustee decides how much money the beneficiary receives.

For instance, if the money is to be used to pay college tuition, the trustee can write a check for tuition payments every semester, or they can put conditions on the heir’s academic performance and only pay the tuition, if those conditions are met.

For a spendthrift trust, carefully consider who might be able to take on this task. Be realistic about the family dynamics. A professional firm, bank, or investment company may be a better, less emotionally involved trustee than an aunt or uncle.

An estate planning attorney can advise you on creating an estate plan that fits your unique circumstances.

Reference:  Kiplinger (June 5, 2019) “How to Keep Your Heirs from Blowing Their Inheritance.”

 

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Elder Law Estate Planning

Leaving a Legacy Is Not Just about Money

A legacy is not necessarily about money, says a survey that was conducted by Bank of America/Merrill Lynch Ave Wave. More than 3,000 adults (2,600 of them were 50 and older) were surveyed and focus groups were asked about end-of-life planning and leaving a legacy. The article, “How to leave a legacy no matter how much money you have” from The Voice, shared a number of the participant’s responses.

A total of 94% of those surveyed said that a life well-lived, is about “having friends and family that love me.” 75% said that a life well-lived is about having a positive impact on society. A mere 10% said that a life well-lived is about accumulating a lot of wealth.

Leaving a Legacy Is Not Just about Money. People want to be remembered for how they lived, not what they did at work or how much money they saved. Nearly 70% said they most wanted to be remembered for the memories they shared with loved ones. And only nine percent said career success was something they wanted to be remembered for.

While everyone needs to have their affairs in order, especially people over age 55, only 55% of those surveyed reported having a will. Only 18% have what are considered the three key essentials for legacy planning: a will, a health care directive and a durable power of attorney.

The will addresses how property is to be distributed, names an executor of the estate and, if there are minor children, names who should be their guardian. The health care directive gives specific directions as to end-of-life preferences and designates someone to make health care decisions for you, if you can’t. A power of attorney designates someone to make financial decisions on your behalf when you can’t do so, because of illness or incapacity.

An estate plan is often only considered when a trigger event occurs, like a loved one dying without an estate plan. That is a wake-up call for the family, once they see how difficult it is when there is no estate plan.

Parents age 55 and older had interesting views on leaving inheritances and who should receive their estate. Only about a third of boomers surveyed and 44% of Gen Xers said that it’s a parent’s duty to leave some kind of inheritance to their children. A higher percentage of millennials surveyed—55%–said that this was a duty of parents to their children.

The biggest surprise of the survey: 65% of people 55 and older reported that they would prefer to give away some of their money, while they are still alive. A mere 8% wanted to give away all their assets, before they died. Only 27% wanted to give away all their money after they died.

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Elder Law Estate Planning

Are the Wealthy Really Different than the Rest of Us?

Are the Wealthy Really Different than the Rest of Us? Contrary to popular belief, much of the way wealth is transferred to the next generation is l ays Fast Company in a recent article “5 lies you’ve been told about generational wealth” are at the real root of the ability to accumulate wealth.

Here are a few commonly held misconceptions about the beneficiaries of generational wealth:

Wealth lasts many generations. Yes, wealth can and does trickle down and set up future generations for success, but it’s harder to maintain across the generations than you’d think. About 70% of wealthy families lose their wealth by the second generation, and 90% of them do so by the third generation.

One reason could be that the generation that inherits the money may not be well-equipped to manage the money they inherit. However, it’s also that family wealth is diluted, as it is divided up among children, especially if each sibling has a different idea of what to do with their inheritance.

Some financial experts recommend that families create a mission statement, like any organization, to establish what their values and goals are.

Are the Wealthy Really Different than the Rest of Us? Parents talk to them about money. You might think that wealthy parents talk with their kids about money, how to manage it, how to invest it, etc. However, that’s not always the case. For some parents, the less said about the family wealth the better. They don’t want the children to know how much they might inherit, and don’t always offer guidance about how they should spend or invest their money.

Many reach their thirties, forties, or even fifties, with no clue as to how to handle money. Even people who work with the wealthy, are often surprised at their client’s lack of knowledge about finances or legal issues. Someone who saved a million dollars, may know more than someone who inherited tens of millions of dollars.

They know what to do with their money. Here’s a surprise: even people who work at hedge funds or in private equity don’t always know what to do with their money. They know about their area of expertise, but when it comes to paying for college or how to pass wealth down through the generations, they are just as likely to be in the dark as anyone else.

A big inheritance can also come with a lot of stress. Do you think that’s a problem you’d like to have? It may be. However, depending upon how their inheritance is structured, it may not be so easy. An inherited IRA requires annual distributions, which can wreak havoc on tax planning, if they don’t have good advisors. Trusts may come with restrictions on what can and cannot be done with the assets. If the money is lost through their actions, that’s a family affair.

They’re lazy and irresponsible about money. There’s a big difference between what we see in the headlines and what’s really happening in families with inherited wealth. While some rich children do flaunt and fritter away their wealth, many don’t. Children from wealthy families often receive excellent educations and want to make sure the family wealth does not end with them.

They spend their money differently than parents or grandparents. Most of us learn how to manage money and spending from our parents. It’s no different for wealthy people. However, those who built their own wealth tend to be more frugal—they feel lucky to have the assets they never expected to have. A wealthy kid might use family money to put a down payment on a home, but they are thoughtful about spending. For some people, receiving an inheritance may come with a sense of guilt to have so much more than others, or a responsibility to make sure they are good stewards of the family wealth.

Are the Wealthy Really Different than the Rest of Us? Regardless of the size of the estate you are managing or hoping to pass down to your children, don’t neglect having an estate plan. That means sitting down with an estate planning attorney who can help you create a plan that will protect your family and your assets.

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Elder Law Estate Planning

Do I Need a Living Trust or a Will? Or Both?

“Tax planning is one element of estate planning, and in many estates is the least important factor. The larger issue is: Who will inherit and what will they inherit?” First National Trust Update April 2015.

“A man of 70 need not be always feeling, much less talking, about his approaching death, but a wise man of 70 should always take it into account. …He would be criminally foolish not to make, indeed not to have made long since, his will.” C. S. Lewis (1898-1963)

Do I need a living trust or a will? Or both? This is just one of the reasons people think they want a trust: to ensure that the value of their overall estate will not decrease, because of the cost of probate. The most common way to do that is with a trust, says The Houston Chronicle in the article “Elder Law: Which should I have—A Living trust or a will?”

In some states, probate is not an expensive or overly time-consuming issue. Texas, for example, has what is called an independent administration. Executors handle the tasks involved in settling an estate and distributing assets to beneficiaries. As a result, there’s very little court involvement. However, New York does not have that process and as a result probate has extensive court involvement. An estate planning attorney in your area will be able to explain the details of your state’s procedures and discuss whether a trust is right for your estate. They’ll also explain the difference between different types of trusts.

The trust most frequently used to avoid probate, is known as a revocable trust, living trust or an “inter vivos” trust.

Selecting the best type of trust for each situation is different. Here are some advantages of living trusts:

Avoiding probate. The cost of probate alone is not reason enough to use a trust. However, if your assets are in trusts, you may not need to file an inventory listing your assets with the court. That’s not always required in every jurisdiction, but if it is required where you live, a trust can help keep your asset list private, by ensuring that it is only seen by beneficiaries.

Asset management for incapacity. A living trust goes into effect, while you are alive. If you become incapacitated, an alternate trustee can step in to manage assets, pay bills and ensure that finances are taken care of.

Avoiding probate in another state. If you own out-of-state property, your estate may need to be probated in your home state and in the other state. If you have a living trust, out-of-state parcels of land can be deeded into the trust during your lifetime, thus avoiding the need for probate in another state. After your passing, your trustee can handle the out-of-state property in the living trust.

Administrative ease. There are, unfortunately, instances when Power of Attorney can be challenged by financial institutions. The authority of a trustee is more likely to be recognized, by banks, investment companies, etc.

There are some questions about whether it’s better to have a living trust or a will. The most complex part of having a living trust, is the process of funding the trust. It is imperative for the trust to work, that every asset you own is either transferred into the trust or retitled into the name of the trust. If assets are left out or incorrectly funded, then probate will probably be necessary. This can occur, even if only one single asset is left out.

If an asset is controlled by beneficiary designation, then the trust may not need to be named a beneficiary, should you want it to pass directly to one or more beneficiaries.

Funding the trust becomes complicated, when retirement accounts are involved. Consult with an experienced estate planning attorney, if you want to make the trust a designated beneficiary of a retirement account. This is because very specific and complex rules may limit the ability to “stretch” the distributions from the account.

Using a trust instead of a will-based plan is growing in popularity, but it should never be an automatic decision. An estate planning attorney will be able to explain the pros and cons of each strategy and help you and your family decide which is better for you and what advanced directives are required.

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Elder Law Estate Planning Probate

Is it Wise to Have Three Grown Children Named Co-Executors of Your Will?

“It is not what you do for your children, but what you have taught them to do for themselves that will make them successful human beings.” Ann Landers.

“There are only two lasting bequests we hope to give our children. One of these is roots, the other, wings.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Is it a good idea to have your three grown children listed as co-executors of your will? This may get somewhat confusing when probating a will, if there are multiple executors.

What are the pros and cons to choosing one child to act as your executor, instead of selecting all three of your children to act together?

nj.com’s recent article asks “I’m planning my will. Is it bad to have more than one executor?”

The article explains that the duty of the executor is to gather all the decedent’s assets, pay any outstanding debts and liabilities and then account for and distribute the remaining estate to the beneficiaries, according to the instructions in the decedent’s will.

The executor is allowed to hire professionals and others to help with tasks, like completing a decedent’s final income tax return or preparing the home for sale.

When you have multiple executors appointed, these tasks can be assigned to each person to lessen the burden of the many duties and responsibilities that an executor has.

On the downside, if those appointed can’t work together easily and without strife, appointing multiple siblings can make the administration of an estate much more difficult due to arguments, conflicts of interest, one sibling taking the lead to the resentment of the others or one executor undermining another executor’s actions.

The problem is, in situations where the siblings don’t get along, designating one of them as executor can cause hard feelings and conflict. It’s not uncommon for those siblings who aren’t named as executor, to complain about every decision made by the named executor or delay in the administration of the estate.

If there are multiple executors, the majority rules. That can avoid deadlock. Simple math in this case says that you want to avoid naming an even number of executors or name a person who can act as the tiebreaker.

Even with a “majority rules” agreement among the executors, there are some financial institutions and other entities that may require all the executors to sign documents and/or checks on behalf of the estate. This can become burdensome and inefficient, if there are multiple executors.

Speak with your estate planning attorney about your family dynamics and get their opinion about what would be best in your personal situation.

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Elder Law Estate Planning

Big Eight: Retirement Mistakes to Avoid

“You don’t stop laughing when you grow old, you grow old when you stop laughing.” George Bernard Shaw.

“Living each day as if it were your last doesn’t mean your last day of retirement on a remote island. It means to live fully, authentically and spontaneously with nothing being held back.” Jack Canfield.

During our working lives, we have a cash flow called a “paycheck” that we rely on. A similar cash flow occurs when we retire and start the process of “deaccumulation” or creating income streams from sources that include our retirement funds. However, generating enough income to enjoy a comfortable retirement requires managing that cash flow successfully, says CNBC.com in the article “Here are 8 costly retirement mistakes to avoid.”

Big Eight: Retirement Mistakes to Avoid:

Preparing for the risk of a bear market. If markets take a nosedive the year you retire and you stick with your plan to withdraw four percent from your portfolio, your plan is no longer sustainable. Better: have an emergency fund in place, so you don’t have to tap investment accounts until the market recovers.

Investing with inflation in mind. We have been in such a low inflation environment for so long, that many have forgotten how devastating this can be to retirement portfolios. You may want to have some of your money in the market, so you can continue to get rates above any inflation. If inflation runs about 3.5% annually, a moderate portfolio returning 6% or 7% keeps up with inflation, even after withdrawals.

What about interest rates and inadequate returns on safer investments? This is a tricky one, requiring a balance between each person’s comfort zone and the need to grow investments. Current fixed-income returns lag behind historical performance. Some experts recommend that their clients look into high-dividend stocks, as an alternative to bond yields.

Be ready for longevity. Worries about outliving retirement savings are due to a longer overall life expectancy. There’s a good chance that many people alive today, will make it to 95. One strong tactic is to delay taking Social Security benefits until age 70, to maximize the monthly benefit.

NOT to dump stocks in a temporary downturn. Without strong stomachs and wise counsel, individual investors have a long history of dumping stocks when markets turn down, amplifying losses. We are emotional about our money, which is the worst way to invest. Try working with a financial advisor to remove the emotion from your investments.

Don’t withdraw too much too soon. It looks like a lot of money, doesn’t it? However, even 4% may be too much to take out from your investments and retirement accounts. It all depends upon what other sources of income you have and how markets perform. Be careful, unless going back to work in your seventies is on your bucket list.

Prepare for cognitive decline. This is way harder to conceive of than inflationary risks, but it becomes a real risk as we age. Even a modest level of age-related cognitive impairment, can make managing investments a challenge. Have a discussion with family members, your estate planning attorney and a financial advisor about deciding who will manage your investments, when you are no longer able.

Are you ready for health care costs? If at all possible, wait until 65 to retire, so you will be eligible for Medicare. Even when you have this coverage in place, there may still be considerable expenses that are not covered by Medicare. If you don’t have long-term care insurance, get it as soon as possible. In the event you are not qualified plan to qualify for medicaid to assist with long term care costs.

Please review the Big Eight: Retirement Mistakes to Avoid with your financial adviser and estate planning attorney.

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Elder Law Estate Planning Probate

Why Do I Need an Executor?

What would happen if someone you were close to, asked you to be their Executor? Would you be honored, or would you be uncomfortable with the responsibility? What do you need to do, when do you need to handle these tasks and how much time will it take?

These are the questions often asked about the role of an Executor, as reported in The Huntsville Item in the article “Role of an executor.”

A person having a will prepared is called the “Testator” if male and a “Testatrix” if female. The person they appoint to take care of distributing their assets and carrying out the instructions in their will is called the “Executor” if male and the “Executrix” if female. That person also pays the estate’s debts and taxes. Note that the debts and taxes are not paid from the Executor’s personal accounts, but from the proceeds of the estate.

Why Do I Need an Executor? The Executor has several responsibilities and power. Therefore, it’s important to choose an individual who is organized, good with finances and knows how to get things done. An Executor could be a person or an institution, like a bank. Here are some things to consider when selecting an Executor:

  • Are they good with handling their own personal business?
  • Do they have some familiarity with your business, finances and property?
  • Are they willing and able to act as your Executor?
  • Do they have the time to devote to serving as Executor?
  • Can they work with your estate planning attorney and your accountant?
  • If you own a business, will they be able to keep it going during a transition period?

There should always be a Plan “B” and perhaps even a Plan “C,” if the first person you wish either cannot or will not serve as Executor. If you do not have a Plan “B” or “C,” the court may name an Executor. That may be a person you don’t know, who does not know you, your family or your business.

Why Do I Need an Executor? The Executor’s tasks vary, depending upon the laws of the state. However, in general, these are the Executor’s tasks. Note that an estate planning attorney usually assists with this process.

  • The will is probated, which requires filing an application with the probate court in the decedent’s jurisdiction.
  • The court issues Letters Testamentary to the individual designated in the will as the Executor.
  • A general notice is given to unsecured creditors within 30 days of being appointed Executor.
  • Notice is given to each secured creditor, by certified or registered mail.
  • Documents need to be gathered, including insurance policies, bank statements, income tax returns, car titles, leases, home deeds, home titles, mortgage paperwork, property tax bills, birth, death and marriage certificates and unpaid bills.
  • The post office, relatives, friends, employers, insurance agents, religious, fraternal, veterans’ organizations, unions, etc., all need to be notified.
  • The personal property of the estate needs to be collected, preserved and appraised.
  • The residence needs to be secured and maintained, including a review of insurance coverage.
  • An inventory of the estate’s assets needs to be prepared.
  • The Executor needs to apply for Social Security benefits and an employee identification number (EIN) for the estate’s bank account.
  • Once the EIN number has been created, open a bank account on behalf of the estate and pay all valid debts from the estate account.
  • Determine any tax liability and prepare for a final tax return to be filed.
  • Distribute the assets and property of the estate, according to the directions in the will.

Usually the estate planning attorney handles many of these tasks and works closely with the Executor. Some Executors are compensated by the estate for their time and effort, but that is not always the case. Talk with your estate planning attorney in advance, about any compensation for your Executor.

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Elder Law Estate Planning Probate

A Big Red Binder of Information

Life happens, when we’re not prepared. A woman is recovering at home from minor surgery when her older sister dies unexpectedly, thousands of miles away. She can’t fly from her home to her sister’s home for weeks. What will happen, asks Considerable in the article “This is the most helpful thing you can do for the people who love you” ? If you’re not prepared, the result is a mess for those you love.

The task of untangling someone’s financial responsibilities and their legal matters is emotionally and mentally draining, when they have not prepared any kind of plan to convey the information. It’s not just making the calls and explaining who you are and why you are calling but having to constantly be starting at the death certificate of someone you love. That’s why people should consider making themselves a Big Red Binder.

That’s the name many people give to their folder of names and numbers and important documents that are assembled for such an occurrence, a reference book for their lives that contains every bit of information that their loved ones will need, in the event of a sudden death or illness.

It’s admittedly old school, but there are advantages to using a large three-ring binder. You can put documents in pocket pages and use loose-leaf paper for your important information. Consider going whole-hog and also buying dividers—anything you can do to make it easier for the person who is going to have to tackle all of these tasks.

Don’t rely on digital only: if your family can’t get into your computer or access your cloud storage, they won’t be able to help. You could keep a copy of the information in a secure location in the cloud or on your computer, in addition to on paper.

Tell at least two people about the Big Red Binder of Information and let them where you have located it. If possible, give one of them a copy, so that they have it available. This is what you should include in it:

Medical Information: Include surgeries, medications, recent test results, treatments and the name and contact information of healthcare providers.

Health Insurance Info: The name of the company, a copy of your health insurance card, your Medicare card and any recent bills.

Recurring Bills: Recent bills and contact information about your mortgage payments or rent, utilities, car lease or loan and life insurance policies. You should do the same for regular bills and for subscriptions, memberships.

Insurance Contacts: A list of all insurance agents, policy numbers and the agent’s contact information.

Investment Information: Your financial adviser’s contact information and account numbers.

Financial and Legal Information: Contact information for your estate planning attorney and your CPA. I t should include where your prior year’s tax records can be found. Make a copy of the front and back of your credit and bank cards. Include recent credit card bills and note when payments are generally due.

Pet Care: Contact info for the vet, any medication information and info for a trusted friend who can care for a pet on a short-term basis. A pet trust, if you have one.

Personal Lists: Who should be notified in the event of a serious illness or death? A list of names, phone numbers and email addresses will be invaluable.

A personal binder like this relieves children or friends, who are in probably still in shock, and gives them the ability to have the information they need right at their fingertips, without having to dig through files or drawers of paper. It’s a gift to those you love.

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Elder Law Estate Planning

What Happens to Social Security when Your Spouse Dies?

The United States Social Security Administration is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors’ benefits. Wikipedia.

If a movie is really working, you forget for two hours your Social Security number and where your car is parked. You are having a vicarious experience. You are identifying, in one way or another, with the people on the screen. Roger Ebert.

Millie is right to be concerned. She is worried about what will happen with their Social Security checks, who she needs to notify at their bank, how to obtain death certificates and how complicated it will be for her to obtain widow’s benefits. Many answers are provided in the article Social Security and You: What to do when a loved one dies” from Tuscon.com.

First, what happens to the Social Security monthly benefits? Social Security benefits are always one month behind. The check you receive in March, for example, is the benefit payment for February.

Second, Social Security benefits are not prorated. If you took benefits at age 66, and then turned 66 on September 28, you would get a check for the whole month of September, even though you were only 66 for three days of the month.

If your spouse dies on January 28, you would not be due the proceeds of that January Social Security check, even though he or she was alive for 28 days of the month.

Therefore, when a spouse dies, the monies for that month might have to be returned. The computer-matching systems linking the government agencies and banks may make this unnecessary, if the benefits are not issued. Or, if the benefits were issued, the Treasury Department may simply interrupt the payment and return it to the government, before it reaches a bank account.

There may be a twist, depending upon the date of the decedent’s passing. Let’s say that Henry dies on April 3. Because he lived throughout the entire month of March, that means the benefits for March are due, and that is paid in April. Once again, it depends upon the date and it is likely that even if the check is not issued or sent back, it will eventually be reissued. More on that later.

Obtaining death certificates is usually handled by the funeral director, or the city, county or state bureaus of vital statistics. You will need more than one original death certificate for use with banks, investments, etc. The Social Security office may or may not need one, as they may receive proof of death from other sources, including the funeral home.

A claim for widow’s or widower’s benefits must be made in person. You can call the Social Security Administrator’s 800 number or contact your local Social Security office to make an appointment. What you need to do, will depend upon the kind of benefits you had received before your spouse died.

If you had only received a spousal benefit as a non-working spouse and you are over full retirement age, then you receive whatever your spouse was receiving at the time of his or her death. If you were getting your own retirement benefits, then you have to file for widow’s benefits. It’s not too complicated, but you’ll need a copy of your marriage certificate.

What Happens to Social Security when Your Spouse Dies? Widow’s benefits will begin effective on the month of your spouse’s death. If your spouse dies on June 28, then you will be due widow’s benefits for the entire month of June, even if you were only a widow for three days of the month. Following the example above, where the proceeds of a check were withdrawn, those proceeds will be sent to your account. Finally, no matter what type of claim you file, you will also receive a one-time $255 death benefit.

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Elder Law Estate Planning

Even a Late Start toward Retirement Planning is Better than None at All

“There’s never enough time to do all the nothing you want.” Bill Watterson, Calvin and Hobbes.

“The trouble with retirement is that you never get a day off.” Abe Lemons.

There are also people who wait until they become senior citizens to begin planning for retirement. That’s a little on the late side, but the important thing, says the article “Retirement Planning: Start now to help Social Security, Medicare” from Martinsville Bulletin, is to get started. That’s better than doing nothing.

It’s easier if you start earlier. Let’s consider the high school student who diligently puts away 10% of a $7.25 per hour gross minimum wage earning for a year on an average 20-hour work week. That’s $750 into a retirement plan after one year. If that student never went to college, never learned a trade, got a raise or a promotion, they would still have $34,500 in personal savings in 46 years. And since minimum wage increased those number swell to $1,560.00 for one year and $71,760.00. It’s not a lot, as retirement savings go, but it’s better than nothing.

If the same high school student put those savings into an Individual Retirement Account (IRA), more would have been saved. The more time your money has to grow through compounding, the more money you’ll have.

Saving a little money every month could make a big difference later on. This year, the average monthly Social Security benefit rounds out at about $1,460 per person, calculated by combining a worker’s highest paid years in the workplace. That’s not enough for retirement. The answer? Start saving early.

It is not as easy to build a nest egg in a few years, but it’s possible.

Many people don’t wake up to the reality of retirement, until they reach age 62. There’s still time to plan. They can put money into IRA accounts, and at age 62 they can save as much as $7,000. Those IRA contributions count as tax deductions.

Roth IRAs are a little more flexible, but there are no tax deductions with contributions. On the plus side, when money is withdrawn, you’re not paying taxes on the withdrawals.

Another important planning point for seniors: if you’ve had health issues, it’s a good idea to keep working to maintain your employee health insurance. The healthier you are, the lower your health insurance costs will be during retirement. However, health costs do tend to increase with age, so that has to be factored into your retirement planning.

For people who take a lot of medication to control chronic conditions, they’ll need to look into health insurance outside of the workplace. That usually means Medicare. Most seniors are eligible for free Medicare hospital insurance, which is Part A of a four-part option, if they have worked and paid Medicare taxes.

Part A helps pay for inpatient care in a hospital or skilled nursing facility after a hospital stay, some home health care and hospice care. Part B helps to pay for doctors and a variety of other services. Part C allows HMO, PPO and other health care organizations to offer health insurance plans for Medicare beneficiaries. Part D provides prescription drug benefits through private insurance companies.

The Social Security Administration advises people to apply for Medicare three months before they celebrate their 65th birthday, regardless of whether they plan to start receiving retirement benefits right away.

Whether you’re 27 or 57, you need to plan for retirement. You also need to have an estate plan, and that means making the time to meet with an experienced estate planning professional to discuss your life and your retirement plans. You’ll need their guidance to create a will and other documents.

Advance planning will always be better than waiting until the last minute, for retirement and estate planning.

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